Ridley points out that there have always been opponents of innovation. Such people often have an interest in maintaining the status quo but justify their objections with reference to the precautionary principle. Even margarine was once called an abomination by the governor of Minnesota—in 1886, the United States government implemented inhibitive regulations in order to reduce its sales. The burgeoning popularity of coffee in the 16th and 17th centuries was met with fierce and moralistic condemnation by both rulers and winemakers, though for different reasons. King Charles II of Scotland and England was uncomfortable with the idea of caffeinated patrons of cafes gathering and criticizing the ruling elite. The winemakers, meanwhile, correctly viewed this strange new black beverage as a competitor, and gave their support to academics who said that coffee gave those who consumed it “violent energy.” Ridley regards the war against coffee as emblematic of the resistance to novelty wherein “we see all the characteristic features of opposition to innovation: an appeal to safety; a degree of self-interest among vested interests; and a paranoia among the powerful.”